月別アーカイブ: 2014年5月

Chemist says creating the perfect cup of coffee is all about the water


Chris Hendon has set out to help a local British barista win the title of world’s best barista and he says the secret to success lies in using the perfect water .

Writing for the Royal Society of Chemistry, the University of Bath computational chemist says the challenge was a natural one for him considering that, “Brewing coffee might be the most practiced chemical extraction in the world.”

Now, there is no shortage of expert opinions on making the perfect cup of coffee, including a few that attempt to break down the process scientifically.

And Hendon doesn’t discount the more obvious factors in making an outstanding cup of coffee or espresso: bean origin, roast, the size of grindings and so forth. But when it comes to the variable of water, he writes:

“This variable is less obvious, but it is clear that the chemical composition of water plays a very important role.” Specifically, different types of water bring out different flavors from the coffee bean – sometimes good and sometimes bad. And being both a chemist and coffee lover, Hendon wanted to experiment with how different variations could be used to extract specific flavors from coffee.

“This was particularly intriguing for the signature drink which featured an espresso shot mixed with two grape extracts brewed in different water – one with high cation content, one with high base content – to extract different flavours from the grapes,” he writes.

For its part, the National Coffee Association says, “The water you use is very important to the quality of your coffee. Use filtered or bottled water if your tap water is not good or imparts a strong odor or taste, such as chlorine. If you are using tap water let it run a few seconds before filling your coffee pot. Be sure to use cold water. Do not use distilled or softened water”.

Hendon’s explanation can sound a bit complicated if you don’t have a strong base of knowledge in chemistry. But put simply, he says many of the assumptions about the ionic composition in water types are too broad, since the actual composition of water varies in different regions across the world and in places, like England, where it rains a lot.

He and his team used an atomic absorption spectrometer to experiment with different ionic levels, leading to Maxwell winning a national coffee competition and and maybe even a “victory for science.”

So, the next time you encounter a coffee snob who wants to tell you about the perfect type of coffee you can respond with, “Sure, but what’s in your water?”

Follow Eric Pfeiffer on Twitter (@ericpfeiffer)

Source Article from http://news.yahoo.com/blogs/sideshow/chemist-says-creating-the-perfect-cup-of-coffee-is-all-about-the-water-225608051.html
Chemist says creating the perfect cup of coffee is all about the water
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Pharmacist pleads guilty in New Jersey to trying to weaponize deadly chemicals

TRENTON, N.J., May 29 (UPI) –A pharmacist pleaded guilty in New Jersey federal court Thursday to trying to weaponize ricin and abrin, deadly toxins extracted from plant seeds.

Jordan Gonzalez, 34, who moved to New York City from Jersey City before his arrest in November, faces a long prison term.

Federal prosecutors said nothing about his motives after the hearing in Trenton. The items seized when he was arrested included handbooks on the collapse of social order and surviving a disaster, prosecutors said.

“Jordan Gonzalez admitted today that he worked to manufacture and deploy deadly toxins, stockpiled weapons and body armor and acquired manuals training him for violent confrontation,” said U.S. Attorney Paul Fishman. “We all have seen the devastation possible when these behaviors go unchecked. With today’s guilty plea, Jordan Gonzalez will face justice and will not be a threat to society.”

Gonzalez was arrested in Jersey City after investigators searched apartments there and in Manhattan and a Jersey City storage unit. Thousands of castor oil seeds, the source of ricin, and rosary pea, which contains abrin, were seized along with manuals on making explosives and weaponizing toxins.

Between September 2011 and March 2013, Gonzalez also purchased filtering equipment and weapons, including a cross-bow pistol. He apparently came to the attention of authorities when he ordered a kilogram of sodium azide, a highly toxic and explosive compound, on Nov. 8, 2013.

Source Article from http://www.upi.com/Top_News/US/2014/05/29/Pharmacist-pleads-guilty-in-New-Jersey-to-trying-to-weaponize-deadly-chemicals/6901401392404/
Pharmacist pleads guilty in New Jersey to trying to weaponize deadly chemicals
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NYC pharmacist admits to trying to make ricin

NEWARK, N.J. (AP) — A New York City pharmacist has admitted in federal court in New Jersey he was trying to make weapons-grade ricin and other lethal toxins.

Jordan Gonzalez pleaded guilty Thursday to knowingly attempting to develop, produce and possess toxins and to possessing equipment for producing illegal narcotics.

Federal prosecutors in New Jersey say the 34-year-old admitted he had been assembling equipment and materials to produce ricin, abrin and other toxins at his apartments in Jersey City and Manhattan. Prosecutors say Gonzalez also obtained weapons, ammunition, body armor and training manuals for violent confrontation.

The pharmacist was initially charged in November with trying to manufacture a controlled substance after authorities discovered he had made purchases through an online auction of materials associated with the hallucinogen known as MDA.

Source Article from http://news.yahoo.com/nyc-pharmacist-admits-trying-ricin-180846660.html
NYC pharmacist admits to trying to make ricin
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